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Chin. Dynastie

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Brandenburger Dynastie. Chinesische Dynastie Shangyin. Englische Dynastie.

Per difendere l'impero dalle incursioni dei popoli nomadi, soprattutto dagli Xiongnu a nord, furono consolidate le fortificazioni costruite dai vari stati combattenti e collegate in quella che viene considerata la prima Grande muraglia cinese , sebbene quella attuale sia stata in gran parte costruita o ricostruita sotto la dinastia Ming.

Sotto il regno di Shi Huang Di furono portati a termine molti progetti importanti, opere di canalizzazione e costruzione di ponti.

Fu costruita una ricchissima tomba per l'imperatore , vicino alla capitale Xianyang , nei pressi dell'attuale Xi'an.

Tutte queste opere richiesero grandi leve di manodopera e un enorme impiego di risorse. Nel a. Centinaia di intellettuali che avevano osato protestare furono uccisi brutalmente.

L'improvvisa morte di Qin Shi Huangdi nel a. Zhao Gao mise quindi sul trono il figlio di Fusu, Ziying. Shi Huangdi fu il secondo sovrano cinese a proclamarsi imperatore , dopo la riunificazione della Cina nel a.

Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Voci correlate. Arte cinese Dinastie della storia cinese Linea del tempo della storia cinese Lingua cinese Storia militare cinese Storia navale cinese Storiografia cinese.

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Additionally, its military used the most recent weaponry, transportation and tactics, though the government was heavy-handedly bureaucratic.

Han Confucians portrayed the legalistic Qin dynasty as a monolithic tyranny, notably citing a purge known as the burning of books and burying of scholars although some modern scholars dispute the veracity of these accounts.

When the first emperor died in BC, two of his advisers placed an heir on the throne in an attempt to influence and control the administration of the dynasty.

These advisors squabbled among themselves, resulting in both of their deaths and that of the second Qin Emperor. Despite its short reign, the dynasty greatly influenced the future of China, particularly the Han and its name is thought to be the origin of the European name for China.

The modern city of Tianshui stands where this city once was. During the rule of King Xiao of Zhou , the eighth king of the Zhou dynasty, this area became known as the state of Qin.

In BC, under the Gonghe Regency , the area became a dependency allotted for the purpose of raising and breeding horses.

As a reward, Zhuang's son, Duke Xiang, was sent eastward as the leader of a war expedition, during which he formally established the Qin.

The state of Qin first began a military expedition into central China in BC, though it did not engage in any serious incursions due to the threat from neighbouring tribesmen.

By the dawn of the fourth century BC, however, the neighbouring tribes had all been either subdued or conquered, and the stage was set for the rise of Qin expansionism.

Lord Shang Yang , a Qin statesman of the Warring States period , advocated a philosophy of Legalism , introducing a number of militarily advantageous reforms from BC until his death in BC.

Yang also helped construct the Qin capital, commencing in the mid-fourth century BC Xianyang. The resulting city greatly resembled the capitals of other Warring States.

Notably, Qin Legalism encouraged practical and ruthless warfare. After allowing them to cross and marshal their forces, he was decisively defeated in the ensuing battle.

When his advisors later admonished him for such excessive courtesy to the enemy, he retorted, "The sage does not crush the feeble, nor give the order for attack until the enemy have formed their ranks.

The Qin disregarded this military tradition, taking advantage of their enemy's weaknesses. A nobleman in the state of Wei accused the Qin state of being "avaricious, perverse, eager for profit, and without sincerity.

It knows nothing about etiquette, proper relationships, and virtuous conduct, and if there be an opportunity for material gain, it will disregard its relatives as if they were animals.

Another advantage of the Qin was that they had a large, efficient army [note 2] and capable generals. They utilised the newest developments in weaponry and transportation as well, which many of their enemies lacked.

These latter developments allowed greater mobility over several different terrain types which were most common in many regions of China. Thus, in both ideology and practice, the Qin were militarily superior.

Finally, the Qin Empire had a geographical advantage due to its fertility and strategic position, protected by mountains that made the state a natural stronghold.

The rulers of these states styled themselves as kings, rather than using the titles of lower nobility they had previously held.

However, none elevated himself to believe that he had the "Mandate of Heaven", as the Zhou kings had claimed, nor that he had the right to offer sacrifices—they left this to the Zhou rulers.

Before their conquest in the fourth and third centuries BC, the Qin suffered several setbacks.

There was also internal strife over the Qin succession in BC, which decentralised Qin authority somewhat. Qin was defeated by an alliance of the other states in BC, and shortly after suffered another defeat by the state of Zhao, because the majority of their army was then defending against the Qi.

The Qin were swift in their assault on the other states. They first attacked the Han, directly east, and took their capital city of Xinzheng in BC.

They then struck northward; the state of Zhao surrendered in BC, and the northernmost state of Yan followed, falling in BC. Next, Qin armies launched assaults to the east, and later the south as well; they took the Wei city of Daliang now called Kaifeng in BC and forced the Chu to surrender by BC.

He solidified his position as sole ruler with the abdication of his prime minister, Lü Buwei. The states made by the emperor were assigned to officials dedicated to the task rather than place the burden on people from the royal family.

The resulting metal was sufficient to build twelve large ornamental statues at the Qin's newly declared capital, Xianyang.

In BC, Qin Shi Huang secured his boundaries to the north with a fraction , men of his large army, and sent the majority , men of his army south to conquer the territory of the southern tribes.

Prior to the events leading to Qin dominance over China, they had gained possession of much of Sichuan to the southwest. The Qin army was unfamiliar with the jungle terrain, and it was defeated by the southern tribes' guerrilla warfare tactics with over , men lost.

However, in the defeat Qin was successful in building a canal to the south, which they used heavily for supplying and reinforcing their troops during their second attack to the south.

Building on these gains, the Qin armies conquered the coastal lands surrounding Guangzhou , [note 5] and took the provinces of Fuzhou and Guilin.

They struck as far south as Hanoi. After these victories in the south, Qin Shi Huang moved over , prisoners and exiles to colonize the newly conquered area.

In terms of extending the boundaries of his empire, the First Emperor was extremely successful in the south. However, while the empire at times was extended to the north, the Qin could rarely hold on to the land for long.

The tribes of these locations, collectively called the Hu by the Qin, were free from Chinese rule during the majority of the dynasty.

After a military campaign led by General Meng Tian , the region was conquered in BC and agriculture was established; the peasants, however, were discontented and later revolted.

The succeeding Han dynasty also expanded into the Ordos due to overpopulation, but depleted their resources in the process.

Indeed, this was true of the dynasty's borders in multiple directions; modern Xinjiang , Tibet, Manchuria , Inner Mongolia, and regions to the southeast were foreign to the Qin, and even areas over which they had military control were culturally distinct.

Three assassination attempts were made on Qin Shi Huang's life, [25] leading him to become paranoid and obsessed with immortality.

He died in BC, while on a trip to the far eastern reaches of his empire in an attempt to procure an elixir of immortality from Taoist magicians, who claimed the elixir was stuck on an island guarded by a sea monster.

The chief eunuch , Zhao Gao , and the prime minister, Li Si , hid the news of his death upon their return until they were able to alter his will to place on the throne the dead emperor's most pliable son, Huhai, who took the name of Qin Er Shi.

Qin Er Shi was, indeed, inept and pliable. He executed many ministers and imperial princes, continued massive building projects one of his most extravagant projects was lacquering the city walls , enlarged the army, increased taxes, and arrested messengers who brought him bad news.

As a result, men from all over China revolted, attacking officials, raising armies, and declaring themselves kings of seized territories.

When Chu rebels under the lieutenant Liu Bang attacked, a state in such turmoil could not hold for long. The Qin capital was destroyed the next year, and this is considered by historians to be the end of the Qin Empire.

The aristocracy of the Qin were largely similar in their culture and daily life. Regional variations in culture were considered a symbol of the lower classes.

This stemmed from the Zhou and was seized upon by the Qin, as such variations were seen as contrary to the unification that the government strove to achieve.

Common forms of employment differed by region, though farming was almost universally common. Professions were hereditary; a father's employment was passed to his eldest son after he died.

Peasants were rarely figured in literature during the Qin dynasty and afterwards; scholars and others of more elite status preferred the excitement of cities and the lure of politics.

One notable exception to this was Shen Nong , the so-called "Divine Father", who taught that households should grow their own food.

If in one's prime she does not weave, someone in the world will be cold. Warring States-era architecture had several definitive aspects.

City walls, used for defense, were made longer, and indeed several secondary walls were also sometimes built to separate the different districts.

Versatility in federal structures was emphasized, to create a sense of authority and absolute power. Architectural elements such as high towers, pillar gates, terraces, and high buildings amply conveyed this.

The written language of the Qin was logographic , as that of the Zhou had been. This would have a unifying effect on the Chinese culture for thousands of years.

During the Warring States period, the Hundred Schools of Thought comprised many different philosophies proposed by Chinese scholars.

In BC, however, the First Emperor conquered all of the states and governed with a single philosophy, Legalism.

At least one school of thought, Mohism , was eradicated, though the reason is not known. Despite the Qin's state ideology and Mohism being similar in certain regards, it is possible that Mohists were sought and killed by the state's armies due to paramilitary activities.

Confucius 's school of thought, called Confucianism , was also influential during the Warring States period, as well as throughout much of the later Zhou dynasty and early imperial periods.

During the Qin dynasty, Confucianism—along with all other non-Legalist philosophies, such as Daoism—were suppressed by the First Emperor; early Han dynasty emperors did the same.

Legalism denounced the feudal system and encouraged severe punishments, particularly when the emperor was disobeyed.

Known as the Border Fortress or the Boundary Ditch of the Jin, it was formed by digging ditches within which lengths of wall were built.

In some places subsidiary walls and ditches were added for extra strength. The construction was started in about and completed by about The two sections attributable to the Jin dynasty are known as the Old Mingchang Walls and New Great Walls, together stretching more than 2, kilometres in length.

The government of the Jin dynasty merged Jurchen customs with institutions adopted from the Liao and Song dynasties. The solution of the early Jin government was to establish separate government structures for different ethnic groups.

Because the Jin had few contacts with its southern neighbor the Song, different cultural developments took place in both states.

Within Confucianism , the " Learning of the Way " that developed and became orthodox in Song did not take root in Jin.

Jin scholars put more emphasis on the work of northern Song scholar and poet Su Shi — than on Zhu Xi 's — scholarship, which constituted the foundation of the Learning of the Way.

A significant branch of Taoism called the Quanzhen School was founded under the Jin by Wang Zhe — , a Han Chinese man who founded formal congregations in and Wang took the nickname of Wang Chongyang Wang "Double Yang" and the disciples he took were retrospectively known as the "seven patriarchs of Quanzhen".

The flourishing of ci poetry that characterized Jin literature was tightly linked to Quanzhen, as two-thirds of the ci poetry written in Jin times was composed by Quanzhen Taoists.

Based on a smaller version of the Canon printed by Emperor Huizong r. A Buddhist Canon or "Tripitaka" was also produced in Shanxi, the same place where an enhanced version of the Jin-sponsored Taoist Canon would be reprinted in Buddhism thrived during the Jin, both in its relation with the imperial court and in society in general.

This practice was initiated in by Shizong to fund his wars, and stopped three years later when war was over. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the empire founded by the Wanyan clan. For the empire founded by the Sima clan, see Jin dynasty — For the 17th-century Jurchen khanate, see Later Jin — For the novel, see Anchu novel.

Chinese dynasty — Related articles. Chinese historiography Timeline of Chinese history Dynasties in Chinese history Linguistic history Art history Economic history Education history Science and technology history Legal history Media history Military history Naval history.

Part of a series on the. Ancient period. Medieval period. Modern period. Main article: Names of China.

Main article: Jin—Song Wars. See also: Timeline of the Jurchens. Main article: Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty. Journal of World-systems Research.

Archived from the original PDF on 22 February Retrieved 12 August International Studies Quarterly. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.

Retrieved 28 June SUNY Press. Emperor Huizong illustrated, reprint ed. Harvard University Press. Cambridge University Press.

West In Mullaney, Tomhas S. University of California Press. A History of Chinese Civilization. Journal of Chinese History.

John Stewart Bowman ed. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press.

Journal of Song-Yuan Studies. Elliot The Manchu Way: The eight banners and ethnic identity in late imperial China.

Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Revue bibliographique de sinologie University of Wisconsin—Madison. Foundations and Limits of State Power in China.

Rulers from the steppe: state formation on the Eurasian periphery. Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 3 May Archived from the original on 4 March Otto Harrassowitz Verlag.

Ganim; S. Legassie, eds. Cosmopolitanism and the Middle Ages. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.

Stanford University Press. Rutgers University Press. The emperor Kao-tsung had taken flight to Ningpo then known as Mingchow and later to the port of Wenchow, south of Chekiang.

From Nanking the Kin general Wu-chu hastened in pursuit and captured Hangchow and Ningpo end of and beginning of However, the Kin army, consisting entirely of cavalry, had ventured too far into this China of the south with its flooded lands, intersecting rivers, paddy fields and canals, and dense population which harassed and encircled it.

We-chu, leader of the Kin troops, sought to return north but was halted by the Yangtze, now wide as a sea and patrolled by Chinese flotillas.

At last a traitor showed him how he might cross the river near Chenkiang, east of Nanking A history of Chinese civilization 2, illustrated, revised ed.

Die Zeittafel China liefert einen Schnellüberblick über die lange, wechselvolle Geschichte Westliche Han-Dynastie (前漢), Qian-Han (auch als westliche Han (西漢), Xi-Han bezeichnet): v. Es gibt chinesische Merkverse, in denen die Urkaiser, alle Dynastien und die Republik China in ihrer zeitlichen Reihenfolge. jasca.co ⇒ CHINESISCHE DYNASTIE ⇒ Rätsel Hilfe - Lösungen für die Kreuzworträtsel Frage ⇒ CHINESISCHE DYNASTIE mit 2 Buchstaben. Kreuzworträtsel Lösung für chinesische Dynastie mit 4 Buchstaben • Rätsel Hilfe nach Anzahl der Buchstaben • Filtern durch bereits bekannte Buchstaben • Die. Kreuzworträtsel Lösung für chinesische Dynastie mit 3 Buchstaben • Rätsel Hilfe nach Anzahl der Buchstaben • Filtern durch bereits bekannte Buchstaben • Die. Die Kreuzworträtsel-Frage „chinesische Dynastie“ ist 32 verschiedenen Lösungen mit 2 bis 8 Buchstaben in diesem Lexikon zugeordnet. Kategorie, Schwierigkeit. Grundbegriff der chinesischen Philosophie. Chinesische Dynastie Qing. Chinesische Dynastie Yuean. Chinesische Dynastie Hia. More info chinesischer Würdenträger. Das Lösungswort endet mit einem N. Wir freuen uns wirklich sehr über Deine Anregungen, Verbesserungsvorschläge und deine Kritik! Chinesische Dynastie Mandschu.

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The tribes of these locations, collectively called the Hu by the Qin, were free from Chinese rule during the majority of the dynasty.

After a military campaign led by General Meng Tian , the region was conquered in BC and agriculture was established; the peasants, however, were discontented and later revolted.

The succeeding Han dynasty also expanded into the Ordos due to overpopulation, but depleted their resources in the process. Indeed, this was true of the dynasty's borders in multiple directions; modern Xinjiang , Tibet, Manchuria , Inner Mongolia, and regions to the southeast were foreign to the Qin, and even areas over which they had military control were culturally distinct.

Three assassination attempts were made on Qin Shi Huang's life, [25] leading him to become paranoid and obsessed with immortality.

He died in BC, while on a trip to the far eastern reaches of his empire in an attempt to procure an elixir of immortality from Taoist magicians, who claimed the elixir was stuck on an island guarded by a sea monster.

The chief eunuch , Zhao Gao , and the prime minister, Li Si , hid the news of his death upon their return until they were able to alter his will to place on the throne the dead emperor's most pliable son, Huhai, who took the name of Qin Er Shi.

Qin Er Shi was, indeed, inept and pliable. He executed many ministers and imperial princes, continued massive building projects one of his most extravagant projects was lacquering the city walls , enlarged the army, increased taxes, and arrested messengers who brought him bad news.

As a result, men from all over China revolted, attacking officials, raising armies, and declaring themselves kings of seized territories.

When Chu rebels under the lieutenant Liu Bang attacked, a state in such turmoil could not hold for long. The Qin capital was destroyed the next year, and this is considered by historians to be the end of the Qin Empire.

The aristocracy of the Qin were largely similar in their culture and daily life. Regional variations in culture were considered a symbol of the lower classes.

This stemmed from the Zhou and was seized upon by the Qin, as such variations were seen as contrary to the unification that the government strove to achieve.

Common forms of employment differed by region, though farming was almost universally common. Professions were hereditary; a father's employment was passed to his eldest son after he died.

Peasants were rarely figured in literature during the Qin dynasty and afterwards; scholars and others of more elite status preferred the excitement of cities and the lure of politics.

One notable exception to this was Shen Nong , the so-called "Divine Father", who taught that households should grow their own food. If in one's prime she does not weave, someone in the world will be cold.

Warring States-era architecture had several definitive aspects. City walls, used for defense, were made longer, and indeed several secondary walls were also sometimes built to separate the different districts.

Versatility in federal structures was emphasized, to create a sense of authority and absolute power. Architectural elements such as high towers, pillar gates, terraces, and high buildings amply conveyed this.

The written language of the Qin was logographic , as that of the Zhou had been. This would have a unifying effect on the Chinese culture for thousands of years.

During the Warring States period, the Hundred Schools of Thought comprised many different philosophies proposed by Chinese scholars.

In BC, however, the First Emperor conquered all of the states and governed with a single philosophy, Legalism.

At least one school of thought, Mohism , was eradicated, though the reason is not known. Despite the Qin's state ideology and Mohism being similar in certain regards, it is possible that Mohists were sought and killed by the state's armies due to paramilitary activities.

Confucius 's school of thought, called Confucianism , was also influential during the Warring States period, as well as throughout much of the later Zhou dynasty and early imperial periods.

During the Qin dynasty, Confucianism—along with all other non-Legalist philosophies, such as Daoism—were suppressed by the First Emperor; early Han dynasty emperors did the same.

Legalism denounced the feudal system and encouraged severe punishments, particularly when the emperor was disobeyed.

Individuals' rights were devalued when they conflicted with the government's or the ruler's wishes, and merchants and scholars were considered unproductive, fit for elimination.

One of the more drastic allegations, however the infamous burning of books and burying of scholars incident, does not appear to be true, as it was not mentioned until many years later.

The Qin government was highly bureaucratic , and was administered by a hierarchy of officials, all serving the First Emperor.

The Qin put into practice the teachings of Han Feizi , allowing the First Emperor to control all of his territories, including those recently conquered.

All aspects of life were standardized, from measurements and language to more practical details, such as the length of chariot axles.

Zheng and his advisers also introduced new laws and practices that ended feudalism in China, replacing it with a centralized, bureaucratic government.

The form of government created by the first emperor and his advisors was used by later dynasties to structure their own government.

Later Chinese dynasties emulated the Qin government for its efficiency, despite its being condemned by Confucian philosophy. A commander named Hu ordered his men to attack peasants in an attempt to increase the number of "bandits" he had killed; his superiors, likely eager to inflate their records as well, allowed this.

Qin Shi Huang also improved the strong military, despite the fact that it had already undergone extensive reforms. The demand for this metal resulted in improved bellows.

The crossbow had been introduced in the fifth century BC and was more powerful and accurate than the composite bows used earlier.

It could also be rendered ineffective by removing two pins, which prevented enemies from capturing a working crossbow. The Qin also used improved methods of transportation and tactics.

The state of Zhao had first replaced chariots with cavalry in BC, but the change was swiftly adopted by the other states because cavalry had greater mobility over the terrain of China.

The First Emperor developed plans to fortify his northern border, to protect against nomadic invasions. The result was the initial construction of what later became the Great Wall of China , which was built by joining and strengthening the walls made by the feudal lords, which would be expanded and rebuilt multiple times by later dynasties, also in response to threats from the north.

Another project built during Qin Shi Huang's rule was the Terracotta army , intended to protect the emperor after his death. The dominant religious belief in China during the reign of the Qin, and, in fact, during much of early imperial China, was focused on the shen roughly translating to "spirits" or "gods" , yin "shadows" , and the realm they were said to live in.

The Chinese offered animal sacrifices in an attempt to contact this other world, which they believed to be parallel to the earthly one.

The dead were said to have simply moved from one world to the other. The rituals mentioned, as well as others, served two purposes: to ensure that the dead journeyed and stayed in the other realm, and to receive blessings from the spirit realm.

Religious practices were usually held in local shrines and sacred areas, which contained sacrificial altars.

During a sacrifice or other ritual, the senses of all participants and witnesses would be dulled and blurred with smoke, incense, and music.

The lead sacrificer would fast and meditate before a sacrifice to further blur his senses and increase the likelihood of perceiving otherworldly phenomena.

Other participants were similarly prepared, though not as rigorously. Such blurring of the senses was also a factor in the practice of spirit intermediaries, or mediumship.

Practitioners of the art would fall into trances or dance to perform supernatural tasks. These people would often rise to power as a result of their art— Luan Da , a Han dynasty medium, was granted rule over 2, households.

Noted Han historian Sima Qian was scornful of such practices, dismissing them as foolish trickery.

An ancient practice that was common during the Qin dynasty was cracking bones or turtle shells to gain knowledge of the future. The forms of divination which sprang up during early imperial China were diverse, though observing natural phenomena was a common method.

Comets , eclipses , and droughts were considered omens of things to come. The name 'Qin' is believed to be the etymological ancestor of the modern-day European name of the country, China.

It was then transliterated into English and French as 'China' and 'Chine'. This etymology is dismissed by some scholars, who suggest that 'Sina' in Sanskrit evolved much earlier before the Qin dynasty.

That year is therefore generally taken by historians to be the start of the "Qin dynasty" which lasted for fifteen years until when it was cut short by civil wars.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 24 June Dynasty that ruled in China from to BC.

Not to be confused with the Qing dynasty , the last dynasty of Imperial China. For other uses, see Qin Empire disambiguation.

Related articles. Chinese historiography Timeline of Chinese history Dynasties in Chinese history Linguistic history Art history Economic history Education history Science and technology history Legal history Media history Military history Naval history.

Main article: Qin's wars of unification. Main article: Qin campaign against the Yue tribes. Main article: Qin's campaign against the Xiongnu.

Floating on high in every direction, Music fills the hall and court. The incense sticks are a forest of feathers, The cloudy scene an obscure darkness.

Metal stalks with elegant blossoms, A host of flags and kingfisher banners. Thus one can almost hear The spirits coming to feast and frolic.

The spirits are seen off to the zhu zhu of the musics, Which purifies and refines human feelings. Suddenly the spirits ride off on the darkness, And the brilliant event finishes.

Purified thoughts grow hidden and still, And the warp and weft of the world fall dark. China portal History portal.

The warlike nature of the Qin in Guanzhong evolved into a Han dynasty adage: "Guanzhong produces generals, while Guandong produces ministers.

Later, this was abridged to Qin Shi Huang, because it is uncommon for Chinese names to have four characters. Morton , p.

Social Science History. Ancient World History-Patterns of Interaction. People's Daily. Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 28 June Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 17 April Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 3 July Sino-Platonic Papers.

Archived PDF from the original on 30 September Retrieved 4 October Marshall Cavendish. Philip J. Ivanhoe and Bryan W. Van Norden, eds. Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy.

Hackett Publishing. CS1 maint: uses editors parameter link Breslin, Thomas A. Greenwood Publishing Group. Bedini, Silvio Cambridge University Press.

Bodde, Derk In Twitchett, Denis; Loewe, Michael eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Westview Press. Kinney, Anne Behnke; Hardy, Grant Westport, Connecticut : Greenwood Press.

Already during Aguda 's rebellion against the Liao dynasty, all Jurchen fighters were mounted. It was said that the Jurchen cavalry tactics were a carryover from their hunting skills.

As the Liao dynasty fell apart and the Song dynasty retreated beyond the Yangtze , the army of the new Jin dynasty absorbed many soldiers who formerly fought for the Liao or Song dynasties.

In fact, the Jin military's use of cannons, grenades, and even rockets to defend besieged Kaifeng against the Mongols in is considered the first ever battle in human history in which gunpowder was used effectively, even though it failed to prevent the eventual Jin defeat.

On the other hand, the Jin military was not particularly good at naval warfare. Both in —30 and in Jin forces were defeated by the Southern Song navies when trying to cross the Yangzi River into the core Southern Song territory see Battle of Tangdao and Battle of Caishi , even though for the latter campaign the Jin had equipped a large navy of their own, using Han Chinese shipbuilders and even Han Chinese captains who had defected from the Southern Song.

In , the Jin army reached Hangzhou and Ningbo in southern China. But heavy Chinese resistance and the geography of the area halted the Jin advance, and they were forced to retreat and withdraw, and they had not been able to escape the Song navy when trying to return until they were directed by a Han Chinese defector who helped them escape in Zhenjiang.

Southern China was then cleared of the Jurchen forces. The Jin military was organised through the meng-an mou-k'o system, which seemed to be similar to the later Eight Banners of the Qing dynasty.

Meng-an is from the Mongol word for thousand, mingghan see Military of the Yuan dynasty while mou-k'o means clan or tribe.

Groups of fifty households known as p'u-li-yen were grouped together as a mou-k'o , while seven to ten mou-k'o formed a meng-an , and several meng-an were grouped into a wanhu , Chinese for Ten Thousand Households.

This was not only a military structure but also grouped all Jurchen households for economic and administrative functions.

Khitans and Han Chinese soldiers who had defected to the Jin dynasty were also assigned into their own meng-an. All male members of the households were required to serve in the military; the servants of the household would serve as auxiliaries to escort their masters in battle.

The numbers of Han Chinese soldiers in the Jin armies seemed to be very significant. In order to prevent incursion from the Mongols, a large construction program was launched.

The records show that two important sections of the Great Wall were completed by the Jurchens. The Great Wall as constructed by the Jurchens differed from the previous dynasties.

Known as the Border Fortress or the Boundary Ditch of the Jin, it was formed by digging ditches within which lengths of wall were built.

In some places subsidiary walls and ditches were added for extra strength. The construction was started in about and completed by about The two sections attributable to the Jin dynasty are known as the Old Mingchang Walls and New Great Walls, together stretching more than 2, kilometres in length.

The government of the Jin dynasty merged Jurchen customs with institutions adopted from the Liao and Song dynasties. The solution of the early Jin government was to establish separate government structures for different ethnic groups.

Because the Jin had few contacts with its southern neighbor the Song, different cultural developments took place in both states.

Within Confucianism , the " Learning of the Way " that developed and became orthodox in Song did not take root in Jin.

Jin scholars put more emphasis on the work of northern Song scholar and poet Su Shi — than on Zhu Xi 's — scholarship, which constituted the foundation of the Learning of the Way.

A significant branch of Taoism called the Quanzhen School was founded under the Jin by Wang Zhe — , a Han Chinese man who founded formal congregations in and Wang took the nickname of Wang Chongyang Wang "Double Yang" and the disciples he took were retrospectively known as the "seven patriarchs of Quanzhen".

The flourishing of ci poetry that characterized Jin literature was tightly linked to Quanzhen, as two-thirds of the ci poetry written in Jin times was composed by Quanzhen Taoists.

Based on a smaller version of the Canon printed by Emperor Huizong r. A Buddhist Canon or "Tripitaka" was also produced in Shanxi, the same place where an enhanced version of the Jin-sponsored Taoist Canon would be reprinted in Buddhism thrived during the Jin, both in its relation with the imperial court and in society in general.

This practice was initiated in by Shizong to fund his wars, and stopped three years later when war was over. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the empire founded by the Wanyan clan. For the empire founded by the Sima clan, see Jin dynasty — For the 17th-century Jurchen khanate, see Later Jin — For the novel, see Anchu novel.

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Main article: Jin—Song Wars. See also: Timeline of the Jurchens. Main article: Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty.

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Rutgers University Press. The emperor Kao-tsung had taken flight to Ningpo then known as Mingchow and later to the port of Wenchow, south of Chekiang.

From Nanking the Kin general Wu-chu hastened in pursuit and captured Hangchow and Ningpo end of and beginning of However, the Kin army, consisting entirely of cavalry, had ventured too far into this China of the south with its flooded lands, intersecting rivers, paddy fields and canals, and dense population which harassed and encircled it.

We-chu, leader of the Kin troops, sought to return north but was halted by the Yangtze, now wide as a sea and patrolled by Chinese flotillas.

At last a traitor showed him how he might cross the river near Chenkiang, east of Nanking A history of Chinese civilization 2, illustrated, revised ed.

Nanking and Hangchow were taken by assault in and in the Jürchen ventured as far as Ning-po, in the north-eastern tip of Chekiang. DOI: West eds.

Twitchett, John King Fairbank illustrated, reprint ed. Jin dynasty — topics. Empires largest Ancient great powers Medieval great powers Modern great powers European colonialism.

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